Rosh Hashana, Between Universal and Particular by Rabbi Ezra Schwartz

shofar painting 3

What are we to make of Rosh Hashana?  Is It a Jewish holiday, a day where we as am hanivchar as children of the Ribono shel olam celebrate our closeness to Hashem or our opportunity to rebuild that closeness? Or is Rosh Hashana a day that is not uniquely Jewish; a generic New Year when all of humanity to is intended to self reflect and be reflected on?  In essence both perspectives are true and create a powerful tension which expresses itself  in the tefilla and in our entire approach to the day. 

On the one hand our tefillos on Rosh Hashana are largely universal- we mention how כל באי עולם יעברון לפניו, not only Jews but all humanity passes before Hashem  in single file to receive their designated judgement.  ועל המדינות בו יאמר our prayers are not only for us and for Eretz Yisrael – our land but for all countries.  Our tefillos refer to the entire world, who will fight wars and who will experience peace.  This broad universal scope of Rosh Hashana makes tremendous sense.  After all it is היום הרת עולם the day when mankind was created.  It is therefore not specifically Jewish, but universal.   

Upon reflection however, it is not just Rosh Hashana but the entire month of Tishrei that is universally focused.  Each of the Tishrei holidays contain not specifically Jewish elements.   Yom Kippur has its maftir Yona referring to teshuva of the non-Jewish people of NInveh.  Sukkos has its parei hachag offered on behalf of the nations of the world. As part of the Tishrei sequence Rosh Hashana seems to be of a universal nature.  It is therefore not surprising that  we omit any reference to Rosh Chodesh in our Rosh Hashana davening.  Rosh Chodesh is uniquely Jewish.  החדש הזה לכם refers to the establishment of Jewish time.  Omission of Rosh Chodesh seems to highlight the universal dimension of Rosh Hashana. 

While Tishrei focuses on the universal, Nisan focuses on the specifically Jewish.  What can be more Jewish than Yetzias Mitzraim– the time when we were freed from Egypt and forged our national identity, separating ourselves from the surrounding world. Rosh Chodesh with its specifically Jewish way of marking time is linked to Nissan.  Hachodesh Hazeh lachem– this month of Nissan is the Jewish month.  It is the month when we became a nation and consequently it is when Jewish time began.  It is therefore puzzling that on Rosh  Hashana at the beginning of the Universally focused Tishrei, we recite זכר ליציאת מצרים  in our kiddush and tefilla.  Not only is it unclear how Rosh Hashana connects to Yetzias Mitzaim, but it is even more puzzling that we refer to this most Jewish event- the Exodus from Mitzraim when we became a Jewish nation at a time when universal themes dominate.  What is the connection to Yetzias Mitzraim and what are we to make of it? 

Obviously one may suggest that all kedushas hazeman has its origin in Yetzias Mitraim and for this reason we mention Zecher Lyitzias Mitzraim in kiddush and davening.  However, it is possible that there lies a much deeper connection.   

Radak in his commentary on Tehilim (81:4-6) explains that the shofar sounded on Rosh Hashana harkens back to yetziat Mitzraim.  Immediately after the famous pasuk תקעו בחדש שופר the verse recited time and time again on Rosh Hashana, w read עדות ביהוסף שמו בצאתו על ארץ מצרים.  Radak interprets יהוסף  to refer to all of Klal Yisrael Further on in that same mizmor  David Hamelech writes הסירותי מסבל  שכמו כפיו מדוד תעבורנהRadak amplifying a statement of Chazal in Rosh Hashana 11a explains that the shofar sounded on Rosh Hashana refers to the shofar sounded when we were freed from the hard labor סבל שכמו  in Mitzraim.   

It is widely reported in the name of R’ Chaim there are two elements to slavery; the arduous labor and the derogatory title of slave.  These two aspects of slavery concluded at two separate times.  While we did not lose our slave identity until Pesach, the intense labor of slavery ceased on Rosh Hashana.  The shofar that sounds on Rosh Hashana is effectively the same s the shofar which sounds on Yom Kippur of Yovel– heralding in a time of freedom.    

Of the three brachos unique to the davening of Rosh Hashana two contain universal rather than specific Jewish themes.  Malchios focuses on the end of days when all nations will declare the sovereignty of Hashem ; Zichronos focuses on how hashem remembers all of creation not only Jews.  It is only Shofaros that seems to be specifically Jewish.  Shofaros with its dual themes of the shofar of har Sinai and the Shofar of Mashiach is the most distinctively jewish of all the brachos of Rosh Hashana.  To this we may add that the shofar conveys additional meaning as well.  Shofar heralds in a time of freedom; a time where slave labor abates and we are free to completely emerge as avdei Hashem.   



Rabbi Ezra Schwartz is a Rosh Yeshiva at RIETS and Associate Director of its Semikha program. 


Awaiting the Arrival of Moshiach, By Rabbi Shimon Schenker

Jerusalme old city

It is said about Rav Moshe Teitelbaum zt”l, that his longing for Moshiach to come was incredibly intense.  He is quoted as saying, “If I had known in my youth that in my old age Moshiach still had not come, I would not have physically survived due to the pain (his delay) would cause me.  My soul would have left me.  However, it is only because of my trust and hope in Hashem that he will come that I have survived until today. “[1] This is the delicate emotional balance we all strive for on Tisha B’av.   On the one hand sad that we are still in exile, while at the same time looking towards the future hoping and believing that Moshiach will come.

This idea is punctuated by Chazal in the Talmud Yerushalmi Berachos[2] and Midrash Eicha Rabbah [3]that Moshiach was born on Tisha B’av.   This is not merely a description of past history.  On the contrary, the intent is that every year Tisha B’av generates a new impetus for the coming of the redemption.

While we wonder at and are inspired by the lofty spiritual level of Rabbi Teitelbaum, one must ask two questions:

  • To what extent is one’s obligation to believe Moshiach is coming? Is it enough to believe that he will come or is there also an obligation to eagerly await his arrival?
  • How does one become a person who truly believes in and awaits Moshiach’s arrival?


Many people are accustomed to reciting daily the version of Rambam’s 13 Principles of Faith printed in most sidurim.  There it says,

אֲנִי מַאֲמִין בֶּאֱמוּנָה שְׁלֵמָה בְּבִיאַת הַמָּשִֽׁיחַ, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיִּתְמַהְמֵֽהַּ, עִם כָּל זֶה אֲחַכֶּה לּוֹ בְּכָל יוֹם שֶׁיָּבוֹא””

“I believe with perfect faith in the coming of the Messiah, and, though he tarry, I will eagerly await daily for his coming.”

This belief is not just a mystical concept or G-d forbid Jewish myth, it is in fact an obligation as the Gemara Shabbos 31a writes:

תלמוד בבלי מסכת שבת דף לא עמוד א

אמר רבא: בשעה שמכניסין אדם לדין אומרים לו: נשאת ונתת באמונה, קבעת עתים לתורה, עסקת בפריה ורביה, צפית לישועה

Rava said: At the moment that a person is brought before the Heavenly court, they say to him: Did you deal honestly in business? Did you have set times for learning Torah? Did you engage in producing children? Did you anticipate the salvation (coming of the Moshiach)?

Rambam  writes that this Gemara is not just an inspirational concept, rather “whoever does not believe that Moshiach will come, or one who does not eagerly await his coming is a kopher (heretic) in the prophecy and Torah of Moshe Rabbeinu”.[4]

It is clear from Rambam that it is not enough to believe that Moshiach will come but to eagerly await his arrival every day.  This is clear from the Pesikta D’Rav K’hana[5], paraphrasing from the posuk in Yoel[6] and Tzephania[7] , “Master of the Universe, when will You judge the nations of the world? Hashem answers, when you eagerly await My (and by extension, Moshiach’s) arrival.  It is said about Rav Shmuel of Salant that every day when he would pray Shemoneh Esrah, just prior to reciting the blessing of Es tzemach David, which asks for the coming of Moshiach, he would pause, then look right and then left, then continue praying.  His students finally one day asked him why he does such an odd thing when he davens.  He answered, that he knows that Moshiach will come today, and before he doesn’t want to make an unnecessary blessing, so he pauses to see if he sees Moshiach is coming before he makes the blessing.


Rav Azriel Tauber[8] asks, what is unique about the coming of Moshaich that it is it not enough to believe in the coming of Moshiach, why do we need to eagerly await his arrival as well?

He provides three unique approaches:

Approach #1 – Personal Growth

Rabbi Dovber Schneuri, the second Chabad Rebbe and son of Shnuer Zalman of Liadi, author of the Tanya writes that in the times of Moshaich, people will still be able to perform the commandments and learn Torah as we do now, nothing will change in terms of that.  He explains that this is because in the world as it exists currently, there are so many outside stimuli and distractions that prevent us from reaching our potential such as wars, suffering, anti-semitism.  However, when Moshiach comes, we will revert back to a time similar to Adam in the Garden living in an ideal environment enabling us to be engaged in holy actions and to reach our potential. [9]  Therefore, Rav Tauber expands, we need the times of Moshiach to be upon us in order for us to achieve our greatest spiritual heights before we go to the World to Come for eternity.

Approach #2 – World Recognition of the Creator

Even if individually we reach our potential, that still is not enough.  The ultimate goal is for all

people, despite race, creed or nationality to recognize and to coronate Hashem as the King of

the universe.  Rav Shimon Schwab, explains that we see this idea from a posuk that we say

every day in our morning prayers.  In “Yehi Kavod” we say the verse :

וְיֹאמְרוּ בַגּוֹיִם יְ-ֹוָה מָלָךְ: יְ-ֹוָה מֶלֶךְ. יְ-ֹוָה מָלָךְ. יְ-ֹוָה יִמְלֹךְ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד: יְ-ֹוָה מֶלֶךְ עוֹלָם וָעֶד. אָבְדוּ גוֹיִם מֵאַרְצוֹ:


“And the nations will say, Hashem was King, is King, and will be King, Hashem will be King forever more, the nations of the land will be lost”.

Rav Schwab explains that this verse doesn’t G-d forbid mean that when Moshiach comes all the nations of the world will be destroyed.  It means that when Moshiach comes, the concept of a “the other nations” which segregates and separates different kinds of people will be eradicated from the world.  Everyone in the world will be united under one common banner of serving the Master of the Universe.[10]

Accordingly, each one of us needs to desire and await the coming of Moshiach so that all beings will recognize the Creator.

Approach #3 – Inspire the generation

Rav Moshe Chaim Luzzatto writes that prior to the end of the days of Moshiach, before the next stage of creation, the Jewish people need to become perfected.  By Moshaich coming, it will inspire the chosen nation to spiritual greatness and will destroy sin and the evil inclination.   When people are confronted with the physical truth of a Melech Hamoshiach, it will be a spiritually overwhelming experience and they will uplifted to refocus on their spiritual growth and less on their physical and mundane needs.[11]

Based on the above approaches, Rav Tauber explains that when an individual doesn’t eagerly await the coming of Moshiach and merely knows he is coming, it is a sign that the individual is spiritually stunted.  That person is disconnected from the ultimate goal that the Creator has for our world, our people and for us as individuals.  His goal is to create a world which will crown Him King, fulfill His commandments, and eradicate evil in order to give everyone their just reward in the World to Come.  This sentiment is known widely as the pervasive attitude of the Chofetz Chaim as illustrated in the following beautiful story:

Rav Simcha Bunim Alter, the Gerrer Rebbe writes[12] that his father Rav Avraham Mordechai Alter, known as the Imre Emes met with the Chaftez Chaim at the first Kenessiah Gedolah in Vienna in 1923.  The Chofetz Chaim said to the Imrei Emes, “We say (in Kedusha of Shabbos Shacharis) to Hashem that ‘we are awaiting you’, but is this really so?  Are we really waiting? We have to feel as we are lacking and desiring this! The Chafetz Chaim then raised his hands and asked again, “Are we really waiting?”   He told the following parable, “We need to await his arrival like a father and mother who are yearning the arrival of their only son who they haven’t seen in a long time.  They know that at any minute he might arrive, so every carriage and train that passes by, they think might be his.  However, even when they realize that their son was not in the carriage or on the train, they still wait for him. “


So far we have seen that the levels that our Gedolim and Chazal who are so spiritually engaged have reached in terms of their connection to the Moshiach.  The question is, how can an average person begin to reach such a level and how should one direct their mind to begin to intellectually and spiritually connect with Moshiach?


Approach #1 – Living for Hashem

Let us turn our attention to an amazing Gemara in Bava Metziah 85b, where we learn two amazing stories about Rebbi Chiya that on the surface seem to be unrelated.

The Gemara states:

תלמוד בבלי מסכת בבא מציעא דף פה עמוד ב

אמר ליה רבי חייא לרבי חנינא: בהדי דידי קא מינצית דעבדי לתורה דלא תשתכח מישראל מאי עבידנא, אזלינא ושדינא כיתנא, וגדילנא נישבי, וציידנא טבי ומאכילנא בשרייהו ליתמי, ואריכנא מגילתא וכתבנא חמשה חומשי, וסליקנא למתא ומקרינא חמשה ינוקי בחמשה חומשי, ומתנינא שיתא ינוקי שיתא סדרי, ואמרנא להו: עד דהדרנא ואתינא – אקרו אהדדי ואתנו אהדדי, ועבדי לה לתורה דלא תשתכח מישראל. היינו דאמר רבי: כמה גדולים מעשי חייא!

[13]When R. Chanina and R. Chiya argued in Torah, R. Chanina said how do you argue with me? If Torah would be forgotten from Yisrael, I could return it through my analytical skills!

Rebbi Chiya: How do you argue with me? I ensured that Torah will never be forgotten from Yisrael!

Rebbi Chiya planted flax, and wove traps from the flax. He caught deer, fed orphans the meat and made parchments from the skin. He wrote five Chumashim and went to a city without teachers for children. He taught one Chumash to each of five children, and one order of the Mishnah to each of six other children. He told them to teach each other what each had learned. (Because everything was done for the sake of Torah, this ensured that it would never be forgotten.

אליהו הוה שכיח במתיבתא דרבי יומא חד ריש ירחא הוה נגה ליה ולא אתא א”ל מאי טעמא נגה ליה למר אמר ליה אדאוקימנא לאברהם ומשינא ידיה ומצלי ומגנינא ליה וכן ליצחק וכן ליעקב ולוקמינהו בהדי הדדי סברי תקפי ברחמי ומייתי ליה למשיח בלא זמניה א”ל ויש דוגמתן בעולם הזה אמר ליה איכא ר’ חייא ובניו גזר רבי תעניתא אחתינהו לר’ חייא ובניו אמר משיב הרוח ונשבה זיקא אמר מוריד הגשם ואתא מיטרא כי מטא למימר מחיה המתים רגש עלמא אמרי ברקיעא מאן גלי רזיא בעלמא אמרי אליהו אתיוהו לאליהו מחיוהו שתין פולסי דנורא אתא אידמי להו כדובא דנורא על בינייהו וטרדינהו

Eliyahu was regularly in Rebbi’s academy. One Rosh Chodesh he was late. He explained that he first had to wake Avraham, wash his hands, and lie him down again after he prayed. He then did the same for Yitzchak, and then the same for Yaakov.

Rebbi: Why don’t you wake them at the same time?

Eliyahu: If they would pray at the same time, this would bring Moshiach prematurely.

Rebbi: Is there anyone living today with such a power of prayer?

Eliyahu: Yes, Rebbi Chiya and his sons.

Rebbi decreed a fast. He asked Rebbi Chiya and his sons to lead the prayer. When they said ‘Mashiv ha’Ru’ach’, wind blew. When they said ‘Morid ha’Geshem’, rain fell. When they were about to conclude the Berachah ‘Mechayeh ha’Mesim’, the world shook. In Heaven, Eliyahu was lashed with fire for having revealed their power of prayer.

Eliyahu appeared to them like a bear of fire to distract them.[14]


The Maharsha asks, why is it that Rebbi Chiya has the power to create such powerful prayers, that he can bring the Moshiach prematurely like our forefathers?  The Maharsha explains that the key is in the first Gemara about Rebbi Chiya producing a Sefer Torah for children to be taught with.  Each and every step of the production of those Torahs and the teaching of it were completely free and unburdened from any intention except the intention to teach Torah.  After he caught the deer, he didn’t say, “Maybe I can use some parts of the deer and sell them.” Every part and detail was completely focused on the mitzvah lishma, for its own sake.  That is why Rebbi Chiya’s prayers were so powerful, his prayers were also not for himself but rather to bring about the greatest amount of honor for Hashem in this world.[15]

This is one way that we can begin to connect with longing for Moshaich.  We need to develop our prayers and longing for Moshiach such that it is not for our own benefit, and what we will gain from Hashem or Moshiach, but rather what it will do to accomplish the goals that Rav Tauber laid out earlier, to bring the greatest glory to the Creator.[16]

Rebbe Nochum of Chernobil once came to an inn in a village.  At chatzos (midnight) he got up and said Tikun Chatzos. He sat on the ground and wept and cried over the destruction of the Beis Hamikdash. It was so loud the owner of the inn got up as well.  The owner asked him what he was doing, he told him he davening to Hashem that the Melech Hamoshiach should come quickly.  When the Jew just sat staring at him with a blank look, the Rebbe said to him, “ Don’t you want Moshiach to come and for us all to go to Yerushalayim? He answered him, I don’t know I have to ask my wife. He came back and said, my wife said we can’t abandon our ducks, so were not interested.  The Rebbe answered back, what about when the Kosacks steal your ducks and all your possessions? He went back and asked his wife, she said, ok, daven for Moshiach that he should come and take the Kosacks to Yerushalayim. [17]


Approach #2 – Mourning ourselves

The Gemara in Sotah 49a writes, “From the day the Beis Hamkidash was destroyed…every day curses (klalah) increases more than the previous day.  The Ramban in Devarim [18] explains that these are the curses found in the “Tochacha”, the rebuke found in the Parsha of Ki Savo.  Rav Moshe Shapiro explains the Ramban that these curses affect every aspect of our physical day and are pervasive in our life.   It will only end when Moshaich comes and ends the current exile.  Rav Shapiro writes, “(In exile) Our lives are antithetical to what they should be in every aspect.  Man is not a man, friendship is not friendship, truth is not truth, and pleasure is not pleasure.  Nothing is the way it should be.”

Without a Beis Hamikdash and G-d’s presence being seen and felt on a daily basis, we have largely lost touch with man’s purpose and role in this world.   When we mourn on Tisha B’av, we mourn not only that we are in exile, we mourn for ourselves that we are not who we should be.  Rav Shapiro writes that Rav Chaim Vital writes in the introduction to his work Shaarei Kedusha that in his day he was witnessing individuals that were not being successful achieving “Ruach Hakodesh”.  Therefore he wrote his work to help achieve that goal.  If today someone wrote that in a sefer, we would think they are joking, but really we should be crying that we have a hard time relating to that kind of holiness.   This gives us a glimpse of what we continue to lose as long as we do not have Moshiach to end our bitter exile.   In order to really want Moshiach to come we have to want to end this reality in order to go back to an earlier time so we can experience Hakadosh Boruch Hu, see his open miracles and reach our potential as individuals as a nation and as a world.[19]

It is said about Rav Shlomo Freifeld zt”l, Rosh Yeshiva of Yeshiva Sho’or Yoshuv, that his office was adorned with pictures of Gedolim.  Once, a student in the yeshiva who was new to Judaism came into his office to speak with him.  He innocently asked Rav Freifeld who all the people on the wall are.  Rav Freifeld sharply answered him, “They are part of a long lost tribe of beings that are very rare today … they are called people.

It should be His will that we should continue to work on ourselves and Hakodosh Boruch Hu will send the Melech Hamoshiach and we too will all become “people” like those on Rav Freifeld’s wall.

Rabbi Shimon Schenker, who currently serves as Associate Principal, has been teaching in YUHSB since 2001. He began as Rebbe in the PTACH program based at YUHSB and then transitioned to become the Director of YUHSB’s Learning Center as well as a beloved Maggid Shiur.
Rabbi Schenker has a B.S. in Management Information Systems from the Sy Syms School of Business of YU, an M.S. in Jewish Education from the Azrieli Graduate School of Education of YU, a Masters in Special Education from Herbert Lehman College CUNY and Rabbinic Ordination from RIETS of YU. He is also trained in the Orton-Gillingam Reading Remediation by the Institute for Multi-Sensory Education.
Rabbi Schenker was the recipient of the Grinspoon-Steinhardt Award for Excellence in Jewish Education in 2013. He delivers Halacha shiurim and teaches chassan classes in Passaic, New Jersey where he lives with wife and family.


[1] Zakai, Likras HaGeulah p. 88

[2] 2:4

[3] 1:51

[4]4 Hilchos Malachim 11:1

[5]5 Nepachim letter beis

[6]6 4:12

[7]7 3:8

[8]8 Pirkei Machshavah , 13 Principles p. 362

[9] Toras Chaim Parshas Vayechi

[10] Rav Schwab on Prayer

[11] Sefer Maamar Haikarim s.v. B’geulah

[12] Meir Einei Yisrael Section Three p. 680

[13] As per tranlation from

[14] Ibid

[15] In his commentary to the Gemara there.

[16]  See Nefesh Hachaim 2:11.  See also Sefer Matnas Chaim, Rav Matisyahu Solomon Shli”ta p. 5 who uses the concept of davening for the sake of the Creator to answer the question of why on Rosh Hashana we don’t ask for any specific items even though that is the day we are being judged for physical items.

[17] Cited in Likras Hageulah p.101

[18] 28:42 and S’forno there

[19] R’aih Emunah p. 312

Tisha Be’Av: Crying Ourselves to Awakeness, by Rabbi Elchanan Poupko

jerusalem tisha beav

I vividly remember walking into the sanctuary of a synagogue on Tish Be’Av night, upon hearing a horrible sound. Looking at the source of the sound, I saw a fully grown man, laying down on a thin mattress on the floor. He was not crying; he was sobbing. So powerfully was he crying that his entire body was moving back and forth, as if in a seizure. It shocked me. I knew that today, we were mourning the destruction of the Beit Hamikdash– two thousand years ago. The way this man was crying made it seem like something terrible was happening right now. What was making him so sad?

The Talmud (Bava Batra 60b) relays the following account, an account portraying just quite how serious the issue at hand is:


“When the Temple was destroyed, there multiplied in Israel those who separated themselves from eating meat and drinking wine. Rabbi Yehoshua addressed them.


He said to them: My children, why are you not eating meat, and why are you not drinking wine?


They said to him: How can we eat meat, which we would offer sacrifices on the altar, and now is desolate? How can we drink wine, which was poured out on altar, and now is desolate?


He said to them: If so, we shouldn’t eat bread, for grain offerings have ceased.


[They responded] we can eat produce.


[Rabbi Yehoshua said]: We should not eat produce, for the first fruits offering has ceased.

[They responded]: We can eat other fruits.


[Rabbi Yehoshua said]: We should not drink water, for the water libations have ceased.


They were silent.


He said to them: My children, come hear and I will say to you: It is not possible to not mourn at all, for the decree has already been decreed. But it is also impossible to mourn too much, for we do not decree a law on the community that most of the community cannot live with…Rather this is what the sages said: A person plasters his house with plaster, but he leaves a little bit unfinished…A person makes all the needs of his meal, but he leaves a little bit out…. A woman makes all of her jewelry, but she leaves a little bit off…As it says, “If I forget you Jerusalem, let my right hand be forgotten, If I don’t remember you, let my tongue cling to the roof of my mouth. If I do not set Jerusalem at the head of my celebration.”


Living in the generation of destruction, many felt religious expression was no longer possible. After all, the Temple in Jerusalem epitomized religious ritual; without it, what was left?

However, the sense of loss was not just a ritual one; it was a sense of impending doom. At this point, there over one hundred thousand Jews were killed, and more than one hundred thousand taken as slaves to Rome. Religious observance of any kind, including the observance of the Sabbath, circumcision, the study of Torah, and other sacrosanct aspects of Jewish life were made illegal. Anyone caught doing any of these can be put to death immediately. Heavy taxes imposed on the Jews who remained in Israel and the economy was not the most competitive one. It did seem like the end. This is the only way to understand the Talmudic statement that follows:

“Rabbi Yishmael ben Elisha said: From the day that the evil empire[Rome], which makes evil and harsh decrees against us, took over, and forces us to stop learning Torah and observing commandments, and does not allow us to celebrate the week of the son[circumcision], it would make sense for [the rabbis] to decree that we should not marry women and have children, and the descendants of Abraham would desist on their own. [But since we cannot do this] leave Israel alone, better they act without intention than with intention.”



Rabbi Yishmael Ben Elisha, who served as the high priest at the tail end of the second Temple, saw its destruction and felt the persecution, thought it was time for national suicide.

He sincerely believed that all Jews would either be killed or be sent as slaves to Rome. Having children at this time made no sense to him. Why raise Jewish children who would never be able to live as Jews or who would be taken to Rome as slaves?!

The destruction of the Temple came to symbolize not only the destruction of ritual in Jerusalem but the destruction of the entirety of Jewish identity. Mourning that Temple, came to mean hope in the restoration of that very same identity.


In the early 1800s, it suddenly became difficult to observe Tisha Be’Av, it started in Germany of all places. Young Jews felt an increasing difficulty mourning on Tisha Be’Av. Accultured, assimilated, and enjoyed good lives, young Jews in Germany felt it was difficult to mourn a Temple which was in a land they no longer saw as their own.  Rabbi Samson Hirsch, addresses these young people[1] and tells them that if indeed Tisha Be’Av marks an event of the past, of the loss of a foregone form of ritual, there is indeed no reason for any meaningful mourning. Indeed we can truly move beyond the past, and anticipate our collective loss, but that is not what Tisha Be’Av is about.


Tisha Be’av is about recognizing we have a lost present and a potential future. It is the recognition that what we lost is impacting us today, more than yesterday. Crying on Tisha Be’Av is a wake-up call for us, a reminder that we are missing something. Today. Now. Crying on Tisha Be’Av is the recognition that worshiping God in any way that is less than at its fullest, is missing something. It recognizes our deep dissatisfaction with constant dispersion and persecution. Crying today means waking ourselves up to being able to live up to a better potential, believing that the world can be better than it is today.


As we approach Tisha Be’Av let us cry ourselves awake. Let us remind ourselves not to be content with the status quo. We must make sure not to accept the rampant antisemitism we live with, the way Jews are treated differently than others, our spiritual distance from Hashem, our inability to fulfill all the mitzvot the way the Torah wants us to fulfill them, and the lack of Hashem’s open and clear presence in this world. As we pray on Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur:” our father our King, reign over the whole world with your glory, and be uplifted above the whole world with your honor, and appear in the splendor of your Majestic might on all the inhabitants of earth, so that everyone with a soul says:” Hashem the king of Israel, is the King and his reign is on the whole world.”

May we see the rebuilding of the Beit Hamikdash speedily in our days and see comfort for all that we have been through in the past two thousand years.


Shavuot As a Journey of Self-Transformation, By Chief Rabbi Warren Goldstein

Mount sinai3

How can Shavuot transform us? If the mitzvot were given to refine, uplift and transform us into better people, as the Ramban (in his commentary on Devarim 22:6 based on Midrashei Chazal) says they do, then we need to probe and understand how the festival of Shavuot can provide us with such an opportunity for self-creation and self-transformation. Shavuot is the anniversary of the giving of the Torah, which took place exactly 3 331 years ago. The question is, how does the knowledge that the Torah was given by G-d at Mount Sinai more than three millennia ago change who we are today?

It’s certainly an important ideological principle. Belief in the Divine authorship of the Torah is one of the Rambam’s thirteen principles of faith, the foundational tenets of Jewish belief. The belief in the Divine origin of the Torah is so important, in fact, the Rambam (Hilchot Tefillin 1:13) writes, based on the Gemara (Gittin 45b), that if a person writing a Torah scroll does not believe that G-d dictated each and every single word to Moshe, then that Torah is invalid, and indeed, should be burnt. It has no inherent sanctity. So Shavuot establishes the Divine origin of the Torah. But, what does this ideological principle mean for our daily lives?

It means in the most profound sense that our lives have a nucleus around which everything we do, think and say, revolves. In the same way that the planets circle the sun and are drawn to it through the powerful physical forces of the universe, so too the Torah is the centre point of our universe. It sheds light on who we are, what our purpose is, how we should live life to optimum effect. Like the sun, it provides light and warmth and energy. It infuses everything we do with sanctity and meaning.

The only factor that could justify the Torah’s place at the centre of our universe is the fact that it was designed and designated by G-d, Himself. Nothing less than that could make a claim on our time and our energies and our identity. Without its Divine origin, the Torah would make no greater claim on our lives than any other of the world’s belief systems.

It’s important to note that the Midrash (Eichah Rabbah 2:13) itself maintains there is wisdom outside of the Torah, among the nations of the world. There is much valuable insight and understanding out there in the world, and many compelling ideas of how to live – but, the Midrash makes the point that there is only one Torah, which is to be found exclusively among Klal Yisrael, and it is a complete, inalienable blueprint for life that we were privileged to receive from G-d, on Mount Sinai, on 6 Sivan, the date of the festival of Shavuot.

That’s why the belief in the Divine origin of the Torah is central to us. It gives us clarity and direction, a map of our existence. Of all existence. Without it, we are adrift in a world of noise, with endless ideas clamouring for our attention, all with competing claims of truth. What sets the Torah apart is that it was designed by the Creator, Himself.

The Torah occupies the centre of our universe because it has been authored by G-d, who is the centre of our universe. This is reflected in one of G-d’s names, HaMakom – literally, “The Place”. What does it mean when we call G-d, “The Place”? The Midrash (Bereishit Rabbah 68:9) explains that the world is not G-d’s place, but that G-d is the place of the world. In other words, we don’t look at G-d as part of our universe; rather, G-d contains the universe. There is nothing besides Him.

This idea can be quite a paradigm shift for those who compartmentalise their faith; who see G-d as just one aspect of their lives. The designation of HaMakom means G-d is front and centre of our existence, he encompasses our lives. This extends to His Torah. Our relationship to Torah is not one which is a wisdom and an offering among the many endeavours that we have in life, but rather the central one around which our entire own personal universe revolves. We live a Torah life.

Rav Yosef Dov Soloveitchik (in his article ‘Kodesh and Chol’) takes this idea one step further. Exploring a person’s relationship with G-d through the lens of Kedushat HaMakom – “sanctity of place”, Rav Soloveitchik delves into the difference between a nomad and a settled person. In early human civilisation, people were typically nomadic, wandering from place to place, often with their flocks, remaining where the grazing was good and circumstances supportive, moving on when they were not. Eventually, as civilisation advanced, human beings began settling en masse, establishing villages, and then towns and cities.

What is the psychology of a nomad in relation to a settled person? Rav Soloveitchik explains that the nomad is purely selfish, taking what they can while circumstances are in their favour. Because of this mindset, the nomad cannot form an emotional bond with a place because they are only there temporarily, while it serves their needs. In contrast, a settled person forms part of a community, and helps build, that community. That person’s attachment to place is more solid and they will remain there, committed, even under adverse circumstances.

Rav Soloveitchik explains that our relationship with G-d and with Torah functions in much the same way. We can relate to Torah as spiritual nomads looking for a dose of inspiration, a dash of wisdom, here and there, but abandoning it when challenges emerge, when it suits us to look elsewhere. Under this self-serving mindset, real attachment – with G-d and with Torah – is beyond our reach.

On the other hand, we can relate to Torah as someone who is settled, as someone not just connected to a place, but connected to HaMakomthe Place. This is the concept of Kedushat HaMakom – “sanctity of place”. Out of this commitment, this detachment from the narrow demands of the self, a true, deep connection emerges; an emotional and spiritual bond with G-d and with the Torah that is deeply satisfying. This is the personal transformation that Shavuot can help us realise if we are open to its message.

An analogy that helps us to understand the difference in worldview of the nomad versus a person who is settled is that of a relationship between a man and woman. The nomadic philosophy is that while the relationship is good, you stay in it, and as soon as there is any challenge, you move out. But the Torah has created the idea of marriage in which the couples commit to one another in a way that is idealistic and self-transcendent. They commit to building a home together and creating a relationship together, and they commit to making each other the centre of their lives. They commit to working through all of the challenges without moving on to another relationship whenever there is anything difficult to deal with. Marriage is about commitment, but it is also about a deep emotional bond.

Our relationship with G-d and the Torah is compared by our sages to that of marriage. The Mishna (Taanit 4:8) compares the giving of the Torah at Mount Sinai to a wedding, where a bond and a deep relationship was entered into between G-d and the Jewish people. At that moment, G-d and Torah moved from a mere diversion, something at the periphery of our lives, to become the core of who we are. This year, on 6 Sivan, 3 331 years later, by relating to Shavuot correctly – by re-experiencing and re-igniting the energies under that marriage canopy in the Sinai wilderness – we, too, can change everything. The process of self-creation and self-transformation of Shavuot is for us to move G-d and the Torah from the periphery of our vision and lives into the very centre. This will change everything.



Rabbi Dr. Warren Goldstein is the Chief Rabbi of South Africa. In his twelve years in office, he has launched and lead a number of revolutionary initiatives that have changed the landscape of both his own community and indeed world Jewry. Locally these include The Bill of Responsibilities which has been adopted by the Department of Education in schools nationwide, CAP, a radical crime-fighting initiative proactively protecting more than 250,000 South Africans and Sinai Indaba, perhaps the largest annual Torah convention of its kind in the world. Two of his local projects have been embraced and implemented by world-Jewry: Generation Sinai, a quarterly Torah learning experience between parents and children and more recently, The Shabbos Project which has united Jews in over 1152 cities and 95 countries through the keeping of one Shabbat together. A qualified Dayan, Rabbi Goldstein has published several books including Sefer Mishpat Tzedek, Defending the Human Spirit and The Legacy. The Chief Rabbi has a Ph.D. in human rights and constitutional law and is a regular columnist for the Jerusalem Post.



Shavuot: The Power of Unity, By Rabbi Elchanan Poupko


From Cheesecake to special Challah, meat to dairy, sweet to savory, the differing customs of the holiday of Shavuot vary greatly. Ashkenazic custom is to have more dairy—and often sweet—food. Sephardic custom is more inclined to meat foods during this time, Tunisian Jews have the custom to eat Matzah, Libyan Jews eat ladder-like cookies remembering the ascent to Sinai, Moroccan Jews eat honey resembling the sweetness of the Torah, Persian Jews eat fruit, and so on with many more customs. The beauty of our traditions is best expressed through the multitude of diverse customs, each representing another side of the holiday. And yet, one of the beauties of Sinai was the Jewish people’s ability to stand united. When is unity a blessing and when must we embrace our diversity?

The Torah says: (Shemot 19:1-2)” In the third month of the children of Israel’s departure from Egypt, on this day they arrived in the desert of Sinai. They journeyed from Rephidim, and they arrived in the desert of Sinai, and they encamped in the desert, and Israel encamped there opposite the mountain.”

Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki(1040-1105), the greatest medieval commentator from Troyes, France, notes a discrepancy in the verse. When speaking of the arrival at the dessert of Sinai, the Torah speaks in plural “Vayavo’u, Vayachanu”, yet when the Torah is speaking about the encampment of the Jews around Har Sinai it speaks in singular terms, “vayichan”, and Israel encamped itself around the mountain.

Rashi, noticing this difference, explains in a terms that has since been coined for generations to be ”ke’ish echad be’elev echad”, the Jews were like one person, with one heart.” A foundational element of the Jewish people receiving the Torah at Sinai was the Jewish people being united.

The Midrash highlights the power of unity with a powerful analogy. “God has created the heavens on the earth, this is like a king who built his palace on several rafts. As long as the rafts are connected the palace can stand, so too, it is as if God’s throne is standing on all of the Jewish people, as long as they stand together the throne can stand as well.” ( Midrash Bamidbar Rabbah, 15).  This powerful statement introduces an unequivocal theological imperative; for God’s presence to be complete in this world, we must all stand united.

Reiterating this very point, the Midrash in Deuteronomy (18), makes the following radical statement:” as long as Israel stand united in one group, even if there is idol worship among them, they will not be inflicted with judgment, and so too you find that the Jewish people will not be redeemed until they are united as one group.”(Tanchuma to Deuteronomy, Parshat Nitzavim, 1).

Why is a religion which is so much about individual responsibility, individual integrity, and personal commitment, so centered with communal unity? How did unity become such an integral part of who we are?

Rabbi Judah Loew of Prague (1512-1609), explains[1] that a nation coming to represent the unity of God—monotheism—must make sure that they too are united. Standing divided strongly diminishes the power of the message of one God. If God is one, we must also be united. Unity does not need to mean conformity, or being single minded. What it does mean is that we must dwell in harmony and unity with each other.

Rabbi Avraham Borenstein, the Sochatchover Rebbe (1838-1910) also known as the Avnei Nezer,  points out that a very similar term to “Ke’ish Echad Be’lev Echad”,  appears earlier in the book of Shemot (14:10), yet with a slight difference. Shortly after the Exodus, when the Egyptians go to chase the Jews, Rashi comments they did that “Be’lev Echad, Ke’ish echad”. The Avnei Nezer explains that the Jewish people are naturally one unit. The bond keeping us all together is so natural strong, and powerful. Before we even unite around any idea, we are naturally bound together. This is why when we stood at Sinai, we did so “Ke’ish Echad”, like one man—first we are one body—and then “be’lev echad” also united at heart.

The Egyptians, on the other hand, did not have much bringing them together. Short of their hate for the Jews, there was not much binding them together. This is why when it comes to the Egyptian, Rashi reverses the order and writes:”Belev Echad, Ke’Ish Echad”.

The Jewish people are bound together in unity. For us to receive the Torah, we must make sure we stand united. When we stand together there is nothing that can stop us. When we are divided, there is nothing we can achieve. May the holiday of Shavuot being with it the blessings of unity, leading us to a full and complete Kabalat Hatorah.


Rabbi Elchanan Poupko is a rabbi and educator. He is the editor in chief of the Lamdan.

We Are All Converts, By Rabbi Alon Meltzer


The idea of the convert is as old as the Jewish people’s birth itself. The outsider joining into the Jewish people is found in Shemot, “And also, a great mixed multitude went up with them, and flocks and cattle, very much livestock.” (12:38). Rashi quoting the Zohar, says this mixed multitude was a mixture of nations who converted in their awe and fear of the Almighty.

Perhaps the most famous of all of these mixtures of multitudes, was the conversion of Yitro, the Father in Law of Moshe. “Now Moses’ father in law, Jethro, the chieftain of Midian, heard all that God had done for Moses and for Israel, His people that the Lord had taken Israel out of Egypt.” (ibid. 18:1) Rashi in his commentary on the verse explains that Yitro had seven names, one of which was Yeter. The Maharal of Prague, Rabbi Judah Loew ben Bezalel, explains why the letter vav, and not any other Hebrew letter, was added to Yitro’s name after his conversion to Judaism. He writes that the gematria, or numerical value, of the name Yeter is 610, while the name Yitro (which contains the added letter vav which equals 6) has a numerical value of 616 (Gur Aryeh).

As a potential convert, Yitro needed to accept upon himself 616 commandments. This is because, in addition to accepting upon himself the 613 commandments that all other born Jews are duty-bound to observe, a convert has to perform 3 additional mitzvos in order to become Jewish – circumcision (for males), ritual immersion in a mikvah, and (in the times when he had a Temple) bringing a sacrificial offering to Hashem. Yeter therefore had a vav added to his name after he converted, bringing the total numerical value of his new name Yitro to 616, symbolizing the 616 commandments he now took upon himself in the process of becoming a Jew.

The story of Yitro’s conversion directly correlates to the development of the Jewish people. The Rambam writes, “Israel entered the covenant [with God] with three acts: circumcision, immersion, and offering a sacrifice.” (Mishneh Torah, Hilchot Isurei Biah 13:1).

He goes on to say that the circumcision occurred as the Jewish people undertook the first Pesach offering. Immersion occurred prior to receiving the Torah, when the Jewish people immersed themselves three days prior to the revelation at Sinai. And the offering was when all of Israel brought an elevation offering.

The Rambam then states, all those who want to enter the covenant must, in his words, “Accept upon himself the yoke of the Torah” (ibid. 13:4).

What is this extra condition? The Torah recounts an interesting event within our history, “And he took the Book of the Covenant and read it within the hearing of the people, and they said, “All that the Lord spoke we will do, and we will hear.” (Shemot 24:7). The Jewish people heard what Moshe read to them, and they accepted upon themselves the yoke of Torah. And thus, all the requirements of a convert were fulfilled by those Jews who stood at the base of the mountain, some 3300 years ago.

This idea of the Jewish people undergoing a conversion, links us with countless people across the generations who gave up so much to become part of people, and Shavuot is intrinsically linked to this idea. We read from the book of Ruth, and those famous lines, where without any apparent motive or personal benefit, Ruth placed her lot with the Jewish people. Ruth’s persistence in staying with Naomi and her proclamation;

“And Ruth said, “Do not entreat me to leave you, to return from following you, for wherever you go, I will go, and wherever you lodge, I will lodge; your people shall be my people and your God my God. Where you die, I will die, and there I will be buried. So may the Lord do to me and so may He continue, if anything but death separate me and you.” (Ruth 1:16-17)

Ruth accepted the yoke of our people, and in turn becomes the direct maternal line of King David.

Each of us is the product of conversion, and each of us has a constant obligation to renew our acceptance of the Torah as we discussed yesterday. The Midrash Tanchuma states, “Dearer to God than all the Israelites who stood at Mt Sinai is the convert. Had the Israelites not witnessed the lightning, thunder, and trembling mountain, and had they not listened to the sounds of the shofar, they would not have accepted the Torah. But the convert, who did not see or hear any of these things, surrendered to God and accepted the yoke of Heaven. Can anyone be dearer to God than that?” (Lech Lecha 6:32)

The Midrash comes as an interesting connector to us sitting in the present day – Dearer than all of us standing at Sinai with the bells and whistles, is the person who accepts the Torah without the fanfare. Directed at the typical convert, it is relevant to all of us.

Those of us who are born Jewish, or those who become Jewish, are Jewish through and through and there is no going back. However, being part of a people gives us no more than an abstract connection to one another. Actively choosing to be Jewish, actively choosing to engage with our laws, traditions and texts, renewing our connection to the yoke of the Torah, endears us to the Almighty.



Rabbi Alon Meltzer is the rabbi of Congregation Or Chadash and director of programs at Shalom, in Sydney, Austrailia. Rabbi Meltzer also served as chaplain at the Canberra Hospital and the Australian National University. 



Shavuot: Why the Jews Slept Before Getting the Torah, By Rabbi Abe Weschler

mt sinai

Moshe brought the people forth from the camp towards God (Shmot 20:17). Why is it that Moshe had to bring them out? Why did they not come out on their own? For sure, the simplest interpretation is that they were scared to come out, as the verse (16) itself says (commentary of 12th century Tosafist, Rav Yosef Bekhor Shor). However, interestingly enough, a midrash (Shir HaShirim Rabbah to 1:12) suggests that they did not come out because they were asleep; so asleep that God needed to set off an alarm clock (as per v.16) to wake them up. Rabbi Chakhinai even offers (in another midrash, Pirkei deRabbi Eliezer 40 (41)) that Moshe needed to run around to wake them up in the late morning, telling them the groom is waiting for the bride!

But why were they sleeping until late morning? Had they not been told that God would be appearing to them all this very day (v.11)? Shouldn’t they have made efforts to get up extra early so that they would be ready, waiting for God, rather than the other way around? Had they forgotten? The great defender of the Jews, Rav Levi Yitzchak of Berditchev (1740-1809), says that was hardly the case. Clearly, their intent to go and sleep was lesheim shamayim. After days of preparing themselves to receive God in their midst and the Torah God was going to impart to them, they were exhausted. Wanting to be bright and clear-headed when being in the presence of God, they went to rest (cited in Avodat Yisrael by Rav Yisrael Hoffstein of Koznitz (1736-1814) on Shavuot).

Rav Shmuel Borenstein (Shem MiShmuel; 1856-1926) sees different purpose in their going to sleep. The midrash has already taken note that sleep has the power to transform the person into a new being by the time he or she wakes up in the morning. It is this thinking that lies behind the midrash describing the Israelites as going to sleep – wishing to be a totally new creation when receiving the Torah, they purposefully went to sleep the night before.

The positive approach to the Israelites’ sleep the night before matan Torah (the Revelation of the Torah on Mount Sinai) presented up till now seems to be in opposition to the view of Rabbi Yitzchak (Shir HaShirim Rabbah). In his opinion, God was not pleased to have to come and wake them up. Why did I come and no one is here? I called and no one answered (using the language of Yeshayah 50:2)?

On the one hand, one could leave the various midrashim in conflict, as they do often present opposing points of view (Tosafot, Chullin 60a, s.v. pasuk). Rav Menachem Mendel Schneersohn (1903-1994; Sha’arei HaMoadim, Chag Shavuot, p. 356), though, does an admirable job of reconciling the different ideas into one cohesive thought (this thought appears on the website of Yeshivat HaHesder Ma’alot Ya’akov here and elsewhere), and even turning Rabbi Yitzchak’s negative perspective into positive constructive criticism. Basing himself on the writings of Rav Shneur Zalman of Liadi (1745-1812; Tanya, Likutei Amarim 37), he argues that the soul is capable of achieving a higher level of understanding when not clothed in its earthly garb. In sleep, when the soul separates from its earthly garb and rises to the upper realms, it has a greater ability to achieve understanding. In advance of receiving the Torah, the Israelites thought to prepare themselves in just such a way to achieve higher levels of understanding. It was their goal to separate themselves from physical reality, and this they would do by going to sleep, giving freedom to the soul. God, although appreciating their intentions—God even went to the length of keeping the bugs away from them so that they could continue in their sleep (as per Rabbi Yudan, cited in Shir HaShirim Rabbah)—wished to teach them that God’s Torah is not meant to be used in this way. On the contrary, the Torah finds its ultimate purpose when operating in and on the real world in which we live. Thus, the best way to prepare ourselves for engaging with this Torah is not by distancing ourselves from the elements of this world, but rather by remaining fully engaged and awake.

While all these insights into the midrash leave one with much to think about, what compelled it to interpret the verse in this way, to suggest the Israelites were sleeping? I believe an answer might lie in the verse in Shir HaShirim (1:12) serving as the midrash’s launch point. I suggest it is reading the verse like this – “before the king was at his wedding celebration (see Rashi), the influence of spikenard was wafting in the air,” meaning, before matan Torah, it was as if spikenard had been spread around the camp of the Israelites. Of all the uses this plant has been put to through the years in its various forms, the most relevant here is its use as a sedative and calming agent. While I have admittedly not found any mention of this use in the works of chazal, I must wonder if this property of the plant was known to the rabbis of the midrash when they suggested that as the smell of spikenard was wafting in the air, as per the verse, the Israelites were sleeping.



Rabbi Abe Weschler served as the rabbi of the Old Broadway Synagogue in New York, and as chaplain in the US Air Force.

He is currently serving as the long-time editor for the Florence Melton School of Adult Jewish Learning, and is also an Assistant to the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force on the Golan Heights, Israel, where he lives with his wife and family.