The minhag of reciting Kiddush in shul on Friday night is subject to much dispute. There are many poskim who strongly support it, while others vehemently oppose it. In this article, I would like to present the arguments for both sides by going back to the original sources.
The Gemara (Pesachim 100b) presents a machlokes as to whether or not Kiddush needs to be made in the presence of a meal (bemakom se’uda). Rav is of the opinion that Kiddush does not need to be said in the presence of a meal, while Shmuel argues that Kiddush must be said bemakom se’uda. The Gemara continues to present stories about many Amoraim who all acted like Shmuel, which led most of the Rishonim to rule like Shmuel that Kiddush must be said bemakom se’uda, and that is also the ruling of the Shulchan Aruch (Orach Chaim 273).